The main problems existing in the development of ecological agriculture in China
(1) incomplete theoretical basis
Ecological agriculture is a complex system engineering, which needs the support of many disciplines including agronomy, forestry, animal husbandry, aquaculture, ecology, resource science, environmental science, processing technology and social science. Previous studies, often of a single discipline, may have a certain, or even more in-depth, understanding of some components of this complex system, but little is known about the interactions between these components. Therefore, it is necessary to further study ecological agriculture from a systematic and comprehensive perspective, especially in the aspects of coupling law between elements, optimization design of structure, scientific classification system and objective evaluation method. This kind of research should be based on the in-depth investigation and analysis of the existing ecological agriculture model. It must go beyond the boundaries between biology, ecology, social science and economics. It should be interdisciplinary and comprehensive.
(ii) the technical system is not perfect
In an ecological agricultural system,  often contains many components, among which there are very complex relations. For example, in order to raise ducks in a fish pond, the number of ducks should be considered, and the number of ducks will be restricted by many conditions, such as the speed of water exchange, pond volume, water quality, type and quantity of fish, water temperature, age and size of ducks and so on. In general, farmers do not have enough theoretical knowledge and experience to scientifically design this complex system, and it is very difficult to simply copy the experience of another place and often fail to achieve success. In the practice of ecological agriculture, there is still a lack of in-depth research on technical measures, including how to develop traditional technologies and how to introduce new and high technologies.
There is still room for improvement in policy
Without the support of the government, it is impossible for ecological agriculture to be truly popularized and developed. And the government's support, the most important thing is to establish an effective policy incentive mechanism and guarantee system. Although China's rural economic reform is very successful, but for the implementation of ecological agriculture, there are many areas worth improving. In some places, due to policy reasons, farmers lack the initiative to effectively protect land, water and other resources. And the factor of produce price respect, also become a restriction factor of development of zoology agriculture sometimes. For poorer people, food security may be more important; But for better-off farmers, higher economic returns may be the basic incentive to engage in eco-farming.
(4) the service level and capacity building cannot meet the requirements
For the development of ecological agriculture, service and technology are equally important. But an effective service system has not yet been established, and in some places, it is not possible to provide farmers with high-quality varieties, seedlings, fertilizers, technical support, credit and information services. For example, credit services are very important for the development of ecological agriculture in many places, because for farmers engaged in ecological agriculture, profits may often be obtained after several years of project implementation, in which case, credit services are essential. In addition, information service is also an important aspect that restricts the development of ecological agriculture at present, because effective information service will be very beneficial for farmers to timely adjust the production structure to meet the market requirements and obtain higher economic benefits.
In addition, although necessary incentives are necessary, eco-agriculture should be more inclined to develop a mechanism for farmers to participate voluntarily in this activity. In order to mobilize the masses of peasants to develop economy voluntarily and independently through ecological agriculture, capacity building naturally becomes a very important problem. So far, no effective capacity-building mechanism has been established, and for the more important grass-roots farmers, there are few opportunities for high-level training and learning.
The industrialization level of agriculture is not high
The fundamental purpose of developing ecological agriculture is to achieve the unity of economic, ecological and social benefits. However, in many rural areas of China, it is still an urgent task to promote economic development and improve people's living standards. The actual situation of ecological agriculture cannot meet one of the needs, because in some places, relying on the development of planting industry, it is difficult to obtain relatively high economic benefits. The globalization of the world economy and China's accession to the WTO have not only provided new opportunities for the development of China's ecological agriculture, but also made it face new challenges. In order to adapt to this new form, there are still many problems to be solved in the development of ecological agriculture, and the industrialization of agriculture is undoubtedly a very important aspect. From another perspective, population has always been one of the major problems in China's social development. It is estimated that China's population will reach 1.6 billion around 2030. Relative shortage of land resources, arable land area is still decreasing, and the population continues to increase, the transfer of rural surplus labor force has become a major obstacle to the sustainable development of rural areas. In order to solve this problem, we must extend the industrial chain and promote the industrialization level of agriculture in ecological agriculture.
(6) there are deficiencies in organizational construction
Organization construction is an important aspect in the development of ecological agriculture. As the world commission on environment and development points out in its report our common future, the integrated and interdependent character of new challenges and problems stands in sharp contrast to the character of current organizational structures. Because these institutions are often independent and one-sided, they are closely related to some narrow decision-making processes. The current ecological agriculture in China also has the deficiency of this kind of organization construction.
(vii) insufficient promotion
Although ecological agriculture has a long history and the government pays more attention to it, it has not been popularized nationwide. 101 national ecological agriculture counties are a very small number compared with the whole country. Because on the whole, the heavy population pressure, the unreasonable utilization of natural resources, the overall trend of ecological environment deterioration has not been fundamentally improved, and the non-point source pollution of agriculture is still very serious in many places. Soil and water loss, land degradation, desertification, water and air pollution, degradation of forest and grassland ecological functions have become major obstacles to the sustainable development of rural areas. To a certain extent, the pilot of ecological agriculture is only a "spark" and has not yet formed the momentum of "catching fire".